ESBL in urine is a condition wherein in ESBL bodies are found in the urine which is normally not present in a healthy individual. ESBL stands for Extended Spectrum Beta Lactamase. These are chemicals that get produced due to certain kind of bacteria. Records indicate that most people get affected by the bacteria in the hospital itself because of improper handling by the medical staff. Open wounds, urinary tract and mouth serve to be common ways in which these bacteria can affect a person. It is also possible that a person may be a carrier of these germs but not infected with it. In case when the person is not infected but carries the bacteria he is said to be colonized by a particular kind of bacteria.
A person who is a carrier but not affected can pass the bacteria to someone else even though he himself is not affected. Bacterial infection should not be addressed lightly. These infections can serve as a threat to the life of the affected individual. This particular condition has brought some improvement in settings of the hospitals as they have started to maintain hygiene to ensure safety of patients against ESBL infection.
ESBL Producing Bacteria
Extended Spectrum Beta Lactamase producing bacteria are gram negative bacteria which are responsible for producing beta lactamase and enzyme has the potential to break-down common antibiotics like penicillin, cephalosporin, etc. This makes it extremely difficult to treat infections which are caused due to bacteria that produce ESBL. Klebsiella pneumoniae and Enterobacteriaceae E.coli are amongst the common ESBL producing bacteria. These conditions usually cause bacteraemia and UTI or urinary tract infections. It is also possible that ESBL producing may colonize in the person’s body but may not infect.
ESBL in Urine risks
Usually healthy individuals do not get affected or colonized by ESBL easily. This infection is highly found in people whose immune system is affected. There are risks factors of ESBL in urine infection.
- Patients who stay for long periods in hospitals are at greater risk of suffering from this condition
- People who stay in ICU or NICU for long time are also at increased risk of suffering from this infection
- Patient who recently had a surgery or have open wounds have high probability of suffering from ESBL infection
- Insertion of tubes such as catheters into the body also increase the chances of suffering from this infection
- Aged individuals are also vulnerable to infection of this kind of bacteria
- It is also recorded that premature babies may develop this condition
- Patient underwent organ transplants may face risk of ESBL in urine infection as the procedure may influence the immune system
- People who use antibiotic for long may have increased risk to the condition than normal.
In a colonized or infected individual the main deposit of these bacteria is lower bowel. The most common way in which these bacteria may get transmitted is unwashed hands. ESBL producing bacteria may also survive on the surface without causing infection if hygiene is maintained such as washing hands and other practices.
Symptoms of ESBL in urine infection
There are different symptoms that are experienced by the affected individuals. The symptoms may depend on the location of the ESBL infection. For example, if the bacteria invade the body through urinary tract then the affected individual will experience intense pain especially while urinating. The patient will also suffer from fever and visit toilet frequently.
In case if ESBL bacteria invade through oral mode the sufferer will also have diarrhea which will have slight traces of blood. This symptom may also be accompanied by other symptoms such as cramping and pain in the abdomen, reduced appetite, excessive gas production and high fever.
If the bacteria enter the body through a wound then the victim will suffer from intense inflammation and redness on the wound. There will be excessive fluid discharge from the wound. If the ESBL bacteria passes into the body through blood than the sufferer will experience high fever that may be followed by tremor or chills. The patient will have intense queasiness and vomiting. Confusion and shortness of breath are also accompanying symptoms in cases of ESBL bacteria infection.
ESBL in Urine treatment and precaution
A person who has colonization of ESBL in the body is not often treated. There are not effective remedies, therapies or medicines that can kill the bacteria. Treating ESBL resulted due to bacteria in the body will cause the bacteria to develop resistance to antibiotic drugs. In some cases when the colonized individuals have enhanced immune system the body eliminates these bacteria on its own.
Infection of ESBL bacteria can be treated though through combination of medicines. These bacteria are said to have resistance to certain antibiotics and thus only cocktail of medications can help in eradicating ESBL from the body. For example, majority of E.Coli that produces Extended Spectrum Beta Lactamase are resistant to penicillin, trimethoprim, tetracycline and some other antibiotics. There only a couple of oral drugs that can decrease the level of ESBL in urine. Patients with ESBL infection are often especially treated by the doctors; hence, consult your doctor and determine the best treatment for your condition.